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Capitalization means using a capital letter (for example, A instead of a) . The use of capital letters helps readers read your writing without confusion.

The two major national styles of punctuation are British and American; the former is also called "logical quotation" where it pertains to quotation marks. These two styles differ mainly in the way in which they handle quotation marks with adjacent punctuation.

Additionally, punctuation can be open or closed. Open punctuation eliminates the need for periods and other marks at the end of a sentence. Periods are not used in abbreviations or acronyms and the Oxford comma is absent. In contrast, closed punctuation uses commas and periods in a strict manner.

 

Paragraph "Cases" in English

In English, we usually only capitalize our writing as sentence case or rarely in title case. However don't be surprised if you see text messages from mobiles in all lowercase or even title case, due to the difficulty of use for most people. We do not use any accents nor special characters in normal English writing (only in dictionary phonetic spellings to learn pronunciations by reading from paper books). We also sometimes use bold, italics, and underlines for emphasis or links in modern digital writing. ALL CAPS is usually regarded as rude and obnoxious SHOUTING, and can actually get your posts blacklisted on social networks like Facebook (but is useful for emphasis in chat and private meeages that do not allow bold or italics formatting).

  1. lowercase
  2. Uppercase
  3. Title Case
  4. Sentence case.
  5. ALL CAPS (headlines, logos, menus)

 

Always capitalize the following:

The first word in a sentence.

  • I grew up in America.
  • She left a message on my phone.

The pronoun I.

  • This country is where I dreamed of freedom.

The first letter of a proper noun (specific name).

  • David wants to play soccer with us.
  • This letter is from Ariana.
  • I graduated from the University of New York.
  • I like Coca-Cola.
  • She likes Godiva chocolates.

The first letter of months, days, and holidays (but not seasons).

  • Today is June 8, 2011.
  • Susie's birthday is this Thursday.
  • The shops are closed on Easter.
  • This summer is going to be very hot.

The first letter of nationalities, religions, races of people, and languages.

  • We often eat Italian food.
  • I want to master many languages, such as Czech, Slovak, German, and Russian.
  • There is one Christian church in my town.

The first letter in a person's title.

  • This is Dr. Syverson.
  • I received an email from Mrs. Syverson.

Geographic areas: cities, states, countries, mountains, oceans, rivers, etc.

  • My destination is Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Hawaii is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

Historical periods.

  • The Renaissance began in the 14th century.
  • The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty in China.

The first letter of each major word in the title of a book, movie, article, etc.

  • Tolstoy's War and Peace is my favorite novel.
  • I found the article "How to Write a Good Cover Letter" in this magazine.

 

 

Quiz

Correctly write each sentence using proper capitalization.

1) i was born in shanghai, china, but grew up in the united states.
2) mrs. ohana gave me the bible.
3) if you walk two more blocks, you will be able to see mt. rocky.
4) my family will have a summer vacation in hawaii.
5) I didn't want to cook tonight, so I just ordered thai food for dinner.

 

 

Basic English Grammar Lessons:

  1. Parts of Speech
  2. Vocabulary
  3. Nouns
  4. Pronouns
  5. Verbs
  6. Adjectives
  1. Adverbs
  2. Prepositions
  3. Conjunctions
  4. Articles
  5. Tense
  6. Gerunds
  1. Infinitives
  2. Passive Voice
  3. Mood
  4. Interjections
  5. Capitalization
  6. Punctuation

Learning Conversational English

 

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